Services > Grouting & Soil Improvements
Grouting is a technique to improve problematic soft and loose soils in cohesion, density and permeability or fractured rocks by injecting grout material of cementitious or chemicals types depending on requirements. It can be accomplished by numerous methods such as end of casing, tube a manchette (TAM), limited area grouting (LAG), and jetting.
There are four types of grouting; 1) Compaction (displacement), to inject grout at high pressure to densify the soft or loose soil forming a very dense and coherent bulb at discrete locations. 2). Permeation, to introduce grout into soil pores or rock fractures to improves its properties without any essential change in the original soil volume and structure. 3). Hydrofracture (claquage), to inject grout at high pressure to fracture or split the soil and forming lenses and sheets of grout. 4) Replacement, to mix the soft or loose soil with grout by changing the structure and properties and produce a new hard or dense and impervious layer.
Jet Grouting and Deep Mixing
Jet grouting is a soil improvement method to enhance soil engineering properties by cut, removed and mixed in-situ with cementitious grout or other hardeners using high pressure(jetting), and in time solidified providing high strength and impermeable homogenous soilmass columns. The main advantage of jet grouting is that it can be applied for whole ranges of soils from coarsest gravels to the finest clays. The designated improved soil properties can be well designed, controlled and achieved, providing cost effective solution. Jet grouting only requires relatively small borehole to create larger diameter improved soil column, it can be conducted from any suitable access point (urban area), terminated at any elevation, and conducted vertically or (sub). The diameter grout column available ranges from 0.8m until 3m depending on the soil condition. Other than for soil improvement and impermeable layer, jet grouting method can be applied also structural support such as foundation, retaining wall and slope stability.
Deep mixing is a soil improvement method to enhance soil engineering properties by mixed in-situ with cementitious grout or other hardenersusing mechanical mixing blade and low pressure grouting, to create improved soil mix columns. The mixing concept is similar and as the predecessor of jet grouting method, with relatively less improvements and application flexibility, however much more economical. Virtually all soil deposits can be treated, except for those which contain rocks or boulders, or other debris which prohibit penetration by the drilling and mixing tools. The diameter soil mix column available ranges from 0.6m until 1.6m depending on the soil condition. Other than for soil improvement and impermeable layer, deep mixing can be applied also structural support such as foundation, retaining wall and slope stability.
Soil Cement Stabilization
Soil cement stabilization is to improve soft and loose soils, expansive soils, sludge, and other weak grounds by mixing it with a certain amount of special cement and water using a rotary mixer, and compacted to high density, hard and semi rigid durable soil layer. Various types of cement stabilizer, in general provide stabilization by high hydration rate of soil water content, forming strong frameworks to strengthen soil structure, functioning in organic acid which inhibits cement hydration, and being expansible to compensate dry shrinkage. It can be applied to various types of problematic soil and relatively requires only short curing time.
Soil stabilization is frequently applied for road construction as a sub base layer reinforcing, subgrade protection or improvement, slope protection, fill and embankments, and structure bedding or foundation.